Pengertian pembelajaran kooperatif

Pembelajaran Kooperatif

Pembelajaran kooperatif sebagai salah satu strategi belajar mengajar adalah suatu cara mengajar dimana siswa dalam kelas dipandang sebagai kelompok atau dibagi dalam beberapa kelompok.

Untuk mencapai hasil maksimal, ada lima unsur yang harus diterapkan dalam pembelajaran kooperatif yaitu :

1. Saling ketergantungan positif

Untuk menciptakan kelompok kerja yang efektif , pengajar perlu menyusun tugas sedemikian rupa sehingga setiap anggota kelompok harus menyelesaikan tugasnya sendiri agar yang lain bisa mencapai tujuan mereka. Guru menciptakan suasana yang mendorong siswa merasa saling dibutuhkan.

2. Tanggung jawab perseorangan

Pengajar yang efektif dalam model pembelajaran kooperatif membuat persiapan dan menyusun tugas sedemikian rupa sehingga masing-masing anggota kelompok harus melaksanankan tanggung jawabnya sendiri agar tugas selanjutnya dalam kelompok bisa dilaksanakan.

3. Tatap muka

Para anggota kelompok perlu diberi kesempatan untuk saling mengenal dan menerima satu sama lain dalam kegiatan tatap muka dan interaksi pribadi. Inti dari sinergi ini adalah menghargai perbedaan, memanfaatkan kelebihan, dan mengisi kekurangan masing-masing.

4. Komunikasi antar anggota

Keberhasilan suatu kelompok juga bergantung pada kesediaan para anggotanya untuk saling mendengarkan dan kemampuan mereka untuk mengutarakan pendapat mereka.

5. Evaluasi proses kelompok

Pengajar perlu menjadwalkan waktu khusus bagi kelompok untuk mengevaluasi proses kerja kelompok dan hasil kerja sama mereka agar selanjutnya bisa bekerja sama dengan efektif.

Penggunaan model pembelajaran kooperatif untuk mengajar mempunyai tujuan agar siswa mampu bekerjasama dengan teman lain dalam mencapai tujuan bersama.

Adapun keuntungan penggunaan pembelajaran kooperatif adalah :

a)    Memberikan kesempatan kepada siswa untuk menggunakan keterampilan bertanya dan membahas suatu masalah.

b)   Memberikan kesempatan kepada siswa untuk lebih intensif mengadakan penelitian mengenai suatu masalah.

c)    Mengembangkan bakat kepemimpinan dan mengajarkan keterampilan berdiskusi.

d)   Memungkinkan guru untuk lebih memperhatikan sebagai individu serta kebutuhannya dalam belajar.

e)    Siswa lebih aktif bergabung dengan teman mereka dalam pelajaran, mereka lebih aktif berpartisipasi dalam berdiskusi.

f)    Memberikan kesempatan kepada siswa untuk mengembangkan rasa menghargai dan menghormati antar siswa, dimana mereka telah saling bekerja sama dalam kelompok untuk mencapai tujuan bersama.

Tetapi disamping adanya keuntungan dalam pembelajaran kooperatif, pembelajaran kooperatif juga mempunyai kelemahan-kelemahan antara lain sebagai berikut :

a)      Kerja sama kelompok seringkali hanya melibatkan kepada siswa yang mampu, sebab mereka cukup memimpin dan mengarahkan kepada mereka yang kurang mamapu.

b)      Strategi ini kadang menuntut pengaturan tempat duduk yang berbeda-beda dan gaya mengajar yang berbeda pula.

c)      Keberhasilan strategi kelompok ini bergantung kepada kemampuan siswa memimpin kelompok atau bekerja sendiri.

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128 responses to “Pengertian pembelajaran kooperatif

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